Biliopancreatic Diversion, or BPD, is a surgical procedure used in the treatment of obesity. In BPD surgery, the lower two-thirds portion of the stomach is removed. The remaining stomach is attached to the distal segment of the small intestine, the ilium. By bypassing the first two segments of the small intestine, the duodenum and jejunum, the small intestine is shortened therefore nutrient absorption is significantly reduced leading to weight loss.
Advantages of Biliopancreatic Diversion Surgery include:
Best weight loss results of all surgeries
Eating capacity is greater than other surgeries
Continued weight loss for 18-24 months post-surgery
Many patients maintain a weight loss of 75-80% of excess weight 10 years post-op
Adjustable and partially reversible but only with additional surgery
Good option for revision if other techniques have failed
Improved health problems associated with severe obesity (i.e. Diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnoea, etc.) Improved mobility and quality of life
Disadvantages of Biliopancreatic Diversion Surgery include:
Most complicated of currently available obesity surgeries
Usually performed as open operation instead of Laparoscopically, with associated risks
Risk of death 1:200 surgeries
Longer recovery time, usually 6-8 weeks
Mal absorptions require lifelong supplementation of fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K), B12, calcium and iron.
Requires permanent lifelong changes to patient’s diet and lifestyle. Risk of iron deficiency anaemia and osteoporosis if supplements not taken
Requires gallbladder removal during surgery due to high risk of gallstones
Dumping syndrome: nausea, reflux, diarrhoea can occur after ingesting high sugar foods
Increased stool frequency to 2-4/day Foul flatulence and diarrhoea if fatty foods eaten
Risks & Complications
As with any surgery there are potential risks involved. The decision to proceed with the surgery is made because the advantages of surgery outweigh the potential disadvantages.
It is important that you are informed of these risks before the surgery takes place.
Most patients do not have complications after Biliopancreatic Diversion surgery; however complications can occur and depend on the patient’s health status.
Complications can be medical (general) or specific to BPD.
Medical complications include those of the anaesthesia and your general wellbeing. Almost any medical condition can occur so this list is not complete. Complications include:
Allergic reaction to medications
Blood loss requiring transfusion with its low risk of disease transmission